Gender-based violence refers to any violence done on the basis of gender which affects the survivor physically, emotionally, socially, culturally, economically and sexually. Unequal distribution of means, resources, opportunities, responsibilities and rights; early marriage or child marriage; limiting the women within the house; and not valuing the work done by women are some forms of gender-based violence.
Furthermore, according to the Act 2071 formulated for the amendment of some Nepalese Acts in order to promote gender equality and elimination of gender-based violence, ‘gender based violence’ means any action which results in physical, sexual or emotional damage either in personal or public life; it also refers to abusive, painful or threatening behavior, and pressure, forcefulness or autocratic actions that prevents the use of freedom by the women experiencing it.
Physical assault, forced abortion, excessive workload to the women to give her a hard time or any action that results in physical injuries or physical damage fall under physical violence.
Creating the fear of physical torture, threatening, intimidating actions, vituperating, use of abusive language, criticizing, disdaining, false accusation, forced displacement from home, forcing to do work out of free will are included in emotional violence. Along with these, discrimination based on ideology, religion, culture and tradition are also forms of emotional violence.
Violence based on socio- culture, religion, tradition, politics such as: child marriage, accusation of witchcraft, ‘Jhuma’, ‘Deuki’, ‘Wadi’, polygamy, practice of untouchability during menstruation and after delivery and ‘Chhaupadi’ fall under socio- cultural violence.
Rape; attempt to rape; sexual harassment; sexual abuse; grabbing private parts or compelling to grab private parts; showing porn photos or movies using ticks; forcefully taking sensitive pictures, photos or making movies; use of sexual chats and sexual words or similar activities fall under sexual violence. The data shows most of the sexual violence is done by familiar and close individuals.
It refers to the act of depriving the use of joint or personal property; employment opportunity; access to or use of resources.